Jāņi ir saulgriežu svētki, kurus svin 23. jūnijā (Jāņu priekšvakars - jaanilaupäev) un 24. jūnijā (Jāņu diena - Jaanipäev).

 

SENĀK

Jāņu priekšvakarā kurināja pirti, gatavoja jāņu pirtslotas (parasti no bērza zariem) un pērās pirtī. Ar bērza lapām rotāja māju, ugunskura vietu un šūpoles. Gāja mazgāt seju avotā, lai būtu skaista sejas krāsa. Spēlēja spēles uz spēku un veiklību: lēca ar maisu, vilka virvi, dejoja polku, padespanu, reilenderu, valsi un krakovjaku. Spēlēja skriešanas un pakaļdzīšanās spēles, piem., “Pēdējais pāris šķirās”. Kurināja ugunskuru. Ticēja, ka Jāņu ugunij ir attīroša, maģiska iedarbība. Jānis bija ļoti godāts vārds. 

Jāņu dziesmās mācīja tautu saiet kopā un rūpēties par uguni, bija svarīgi, lai ciema ļaudis būtu kopā. Šūpojās lielajās ciema šūpolēs. Meitas, kuras gribēja iziet pie vīra, vāca deviņas dažādas puķes, pina no tām vainagus un pusnaktī krustceļā lika tos galvā. Pēc tam viņas vairs nedrīkstēja ne ar vienu runāt, ne arī skatīties atpakaļ. Naktī vainags bija jānoliek zem spilvena, lai sapnī redzētu sava līgavaiņa seju. Meklēja papardes ziedu. Arī mirdzošie jāņtārpiņi ir saukti par papardes ziedu. Jāņu dienu uzskatīja par siena vākšanas sākumu.

MŪSDIENĀS

Mūsdienās ļaudis tīra un pušķo māju, gatavo pirtsslotas, iet pirtī gan lauku mājās, gan vasarnīcās. Jāņu ugunskurs parasti ir diezgan augsts. Pie jāņuguns parasti notiek vietējo deju grupu, koru un ansambļu koncerti. Bieži izpilda no tautas dejām iedvesmotas autoru dejas, taču dejo arī senās dejas, īpaši tās, kurās var iesaistīt arī skatītājus. Tautu izdancina ansamblis, taču modē ir arī viena vai divu vīru ansambļi. Galvenokārt tiek dziedātas ļoti labi zināmas tautasdziesmas, kā arī mūsdienu populārākās dziesmas. Rīko sacensības un spēka spēles. Arī šūpošanās ir Jāņu vakara tradīcija. Lielās Jāņugunis ir palikušas mazākā skaitā. Daudzas ģimenes izvēlas pavadīt laiku pie pašu ugunskura vai brauc kaut kur pie dabas piknikā. Uz uguns grilē gaļu un desiņas, dzer alu. Jāņu nedēļā ģimenes brauc arī uz kapiņiem, lai uzkoptu tuvinieku kapavietas. Jāņu dienā daudzās kapsētās notiek piemiņas ceremonijas.

VĀRDI

KLAUSIES un IZRUNĀ

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avots allikas

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attīrošs puhastav

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godāt austama

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grilēt grillima

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iedarbība toime

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iziet pie vīra mehele saada

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izpildīt esitama

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jāņuguns jaanituli

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jāņtārpiņš jaaniuss

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kapavieta haud

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kapsēta kalmistu

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kurināt kütma

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līgavainis peig

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maiss kott

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papardes zieds sõnajalaõis

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pakaļdzīšanās tagaajamine

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pērties vihtlema

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piemiņas ceremonija mälestusteenistus

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pirts saun

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pirtsslota viht

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priekšvakars eelõhtu (laupäev)

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rīkot korraldama

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siena vākšana heinategu

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sejas krāsa jume

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spēks jõud

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ugunskurs lõke

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virves vilkšana köievedu

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vainaga pīšana pärga punuma

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veiklība osavus

       

Harjutus 5